The most common type is Sambucus nigra, also known as the European elderberry or black elder!
The berries and flowers of elderberry are packed with antioxidants and vitamins that may boost your immune system. They can help tame inflammation, lessen stress, and help protect your heart, too. Some experts recommend elderberry to help prevent and ease cold and flu symptoms.
Elderberry: A Natural Way to Boost Immunity During Cold and Flu Season
Elderberries are particularly rich in flavonoids, especially anthocyanins which are responsible for their deep purple (almost black) colouring. These powerful antioxidants work to keep the immune system strong and resilient. Dr Gerhard Rechkemmer is the President of Germany?s Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food. His research has shown that the anthocyanins in elderberries boost the production of cytokines ? proteins that act as messengers within the immune system ? thereby enhancing the body?s immune response. Cytokines play a crucial role in the immune system?s response to disease and work in ways very similar to hormones. They can be both inflammatory or anti-inflammatory depending on what is needed and are released by immune cells either directly into the blood stream or locally into body tissue during an immune response.
These tiny berries are also believed to contain antiviral agents? compounds so potent they are thought to deactivate viruses. Viruses are unable to multiply on their own and need to get inside a healthy cell to do so. They are cleverly coated with something called ?haemagglutinin spikes? to help them pierce the cell wall. These viral spikes are also covered with enzymes which the virus uses to break down the cell wall.
Elderberries have high concentrations of bioflavonoids which appear to inhibit the action of this enzyme, thus deactivating viruses and rendering them unable to pierce the cell wall and replicate.
The Elderflower is also packed with bio-flavonoids that help to boost the immune system. Research has shown that Elderflowers are also effective in killing common pathogens.
The humble elderberry is perhaps most famously used for the treatment of colds and flu. There is much evidence for its effectiveness, with a double-blind, placebo controlled trial conducted during an outbreak of influenza B in Panama in 1995. The study found that within 2 days there were significant improvements in symptoms, including fever, among 93.3% of those taking elderberry syrup. 90% of the elderberry group were completely well again within? 3 days compared to 6 days in the placebo group.
In 2016 another study by School of Pharmacy, Griffith University, Australia published in ?Nutrients? , showed that supplementation with elderberry can reduce the symptoms and duration of a cold in air travellers. Travellers who used elderberry for 10 days before travel and up to 5 days after arriving overseas experienced an average 2 day shorter duration of their colds, and a noticeable reduction in their symptoms.
The Elderflower is an “anti-catarrhal” herb, meaning it is extremely effective for runny noses and congestion. Anti-catarrhal herbs prevent excess mucous formation and aid in removing mucous and reducing inflammation in the body.
Cystitis/Urinary Tract/Bladder Infections:
Most commonly affecting women (although men are certainly not exempt), UTI?s, cystitis and bladder infections cause a world of misery and pain. The constant urge to urinate, accompanied by a burning sensation can leave the sufferer feeling housebound and depressed. Elderberry tea may bring significant relief from this debilitating condition ? first and foremost acting as a diuretic. This is important as it causes the kidneys to continually flush out toxins whilst increasing urination. This in turn helps to flush out the bacteria that cause cystitis, reducing the likelihood of the infection spreading to the bladder and/or kidneys and may also help to reduce its duration. Its anti-inflammatory properties may help to reduce inflammation, potentially reducing the burning and pain that accompanies urination.
Elderberry?s immunostimulating and anti-inflammatory properties make it a great natural remedy for allergy symptoms. Inflammation of the sinuses, sneezing, itchy and watery eyes, swelling and a runny or stuffy nose can all benefit from this potent herb. It is thought to be particularly good for hayfever and strengthening the upper respiratory tract.
Elderflower’s anti-catarrhal action is also effective in clearing congestion and runny noses caused by seasonal allergies.
The high fibre content of elderberries can help to eliminate constipation, reduce excess gas and generally increase the health of the gastrointestinal system. The dietary fibre contained in these berries can also increase nutrient uptake efficiency, especially in the gut, helping you to get more out of the food that you eat.
Folklore and History:
Over the centuries, elderberry has been used to treat colds, flu, fever, burns, cuts, and more than 70 other maladies, from toothache to the plague. In the 17th century, John Evelyn, a British researcher, declared, ?If the medicinal properties of its leaves, bark, and berries were fully known, I cannot tell what our countryman could ail for which he might not fetch a remedy (from the elderberry), either for sickness or wounds.?
Elder is sacred to many goddess traditions, especially those dedicated to the goddesses Venus and Holle. Pagan tradition holds that the spirit which inhabits the Elder tree is the Elder Mother who holds the power to work her magic in this world. It was said that one who falls asleep under the branches of the Elder Tree would have vivid dreams of faery realms and be transported to Celtic faery lands.